Nonviolent Communication (NVC), is a theory and practice intended to create a quality of connection among people such that they want to, and are able to, consider the needs of everyone involved in any given situation. It is also known as Compassionate Communication, because it's about learning to listen more compassionately, and to speak in ways that are likely to inspire compassion others.
Nonviolent Communication is also the name of a book by Marshall Rosenberg explaining the theory/practice. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1892005034/
There is a large network of people sharing NVC through much of the world, with enough people working together, supporting each other, or even living together in some areas to qualify as communities. See http://cnvc.org/world.htm for a partial listing. Trainings are offered by the Center for Nonviolent Communication and many organizations, some listed here: http://www.cnvc.org/network.aspx
Yet another name for it is Giraffe Language - we use giraffe as a symbol for the kind of communication we are teaching, and jackal (or in some areas wolf or snake) as a symbol for the kind of communication that is the opposite of compassionate.